Digital Imaging: Image Capturing, Image Sensors - Technologies and Applications - CEI-Europe
Course #13

Digital Imaging: Image Capturing, Image Sensors - Technologies and Applications

October 10 - 14, 2016 . Dresden, Germany
April 3 - 7, 2017 . Amersfoort, The Netherlands

We recommend you to submit your preliminary or firm registration at least 4 weeks before course start to ensure a seat on the course.

TECHNOLOGY FOCUS
If "A picture tells more than a thousand words", then imaging will be the language of the future. In today's emerging markets of electronic equipment, imaging plays a very important role. The digital photography market has completely replaced the classical silver-halide film. Video-conferencing, desktop video cameras and still-picture capturing means are standard products as computer add-ons. Imaging is added to cars, mobile phones, and other devices. Very soon we will see the first cameras popping up in watches.
Solid-state image sensors replaced the classical tubes in the broadcast world and are doing the same in other professional application areas. Also in the medical world, new surgery techniques become possible thanks to the powerful characteristics of the image sensors. New developments in CMOS semiconductor technology, next to the outstanding imaging performance of CCDs, open up new applications in the imaging arena. It is just a matter of time and then we will be able to detect single photons with solid-state image sensors.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
The major objective of this course is to make the participants familiar and experienced with solid-state imaging and the relevant related topics. It will give an in-depth view of the possibilities and limitations of the image capturing technology of today and tomorrow. Practical sessions will form a strong backbone of the course, complemented by several tutorial lectures. 

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

The course is aimed at engineers, scientists and managers with basic knowledge, either theoretical or hands-on, in engineering or physics. No detailed knowledge of device physics is assumed. The course is developed to give an in-depth understanding of image capturing to engineers and technicians who are active in the field, and to give those with a theoretical knowledge the opportunity to learn more about the practical issues of the subject. Much of the course will be of interest also to camera designers through its practical approach. 

The course will provide managers and research workers having related experience in industrial, governmental or academic institutions with a valuable update on the latest developments in this fast-moving imaging subject. 

COURSE MATERIAL 
Participants will receive a comprehensive set of course notes, including digests of the lectures and detailed notes on the practical work. These notes are for participants only and are not for sale. 
Bring your own calculator. 

Monday
Charge-Coupled Devices 
A large part of the first day will focus on the working principle of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs). Emphasis will be on the output amplifiers, on charge transport on one-dimensional and two-dimensional image sensors. 
By means of computer animations, the basic working principle of the various architectures will be demonstrated. A practical exercise will make the participants familiar with the timing of a 2D imager. 

CMOS Image Sensors 
The second major subject of the first day will be on CMOS image sensors. Passive as well as active imager configurations will be discussed. 

Sensor Architectures

Finally, various types of sensor architectures and technologies will be treated. 
The dark characteristics of the imagers will be discussed, i.e. dark current, its temperature 
dependence and dark fixed-pattern noise. An exercise will demonstrate these features. 

Tuesday
Optical Characteristics 
The second day lectures will deal with all kinds of optical characteristics of the imagers.

  • Absorption of Photons
  • Light Sensitivity
  • Fill Factor
  • Quantum Efficiency
  • Micro-Lenses
  • Smear
  • Blooming
  • Electronic Shuttering
  • Sampling
  • Aliasing
  • MTF

The MTF or Modulation Transfer Function will be studied in more detail by means of a practical exercise. 

Wednesday 
Colour Imaging 
Colour imaging is an important part of the course. We will focus on the following topics:

  • Colour imaging by means of a filter wheel
  • Colour imaging by means of a prism
  • Colour imaging by means of stacked photodiodes
  • Colour imaging by means of colour filters

The latter can come in mosaic and in stripe configuration, in primary and in complementary colours. 
Colour imaging is more than just colour filters. Colour matrixing and colour de-mosaicing are important techniques that we will discuss. An exercise on colour interpolation will make these various issues more clear. 

Thursday
Noise and The Dynamic Range 
The most challenging topic of the course, noise and dynamic range, will be treated on the fourth day. To make the subject of noise more clear, all noise sources will first be discussed separately.

  • Reset or kTC Noise
  • Thermal or Johnson Noise
  • Dark and Photon Shot Noise
  • Flicker or 1/f Noise
  • Quantization Noise
  • Fixed Pattern Noise in Dark and in Light
  • Noise Perception
  • The Use of Noise as a Measurement Tool
  • The Overall Noise Problem, i.e. the real situation when all the various noise sources come together

Noise is a dominant factor in the definition of the dynamic range. This will be explained further and demonstrated by means of an exercise. 

Friday
The Imager in Real Life 
All topics we have treated so far in this course will be incorporated into two main problems:

  • How to Measure the Various Parameters of a Sensor: Dark current, nonuniformities, MTF, conversion gain, sensitivity, quantum efficiency, etc.
  • How to Analyse the Specifications of an Imager? Existing data sheets of imagers will be analyzed and discussed. You can also bring your own data sheet to be discussed.

Finally, a live demonstration with a camera will summarize what we 
have learnt. Various sensor parameters and artefacts will be illustrated.


citatteckenSaid about the course from previous participants:
"The course had a good balance between enough technical deepness and a wide range of subjects and  hands-on exercises. Wide coverage of the topic and relation to practical work. Very interesting course, very motivated and enthusiastic teacher, fully satisfied! Very practical and lively explanations. Many examples from real life."

CEI-Europe AB, Tulpanvägen 28, SE-585 64 Linghem, Sweden Phone +46-13-100 730 Fax +46-13-100 731 cei@cei.se