Digital Imaging: Image Capturing, Image Sensors - Technologies and Applications
April 3 - 7, 2017
. Amersfoort, The Netherlands
October 23 - 27, 2017
. Barcelona, Spain
We recommend you to submit your
preliminary or firm registration at least 4 weeks before course
start to ensure a seat on the course.
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If "A picture tells more than a thousand words", then imaging will
be the language of the future. In today's emerging markets of
electronic equipment, imaging plays a very important role. The
digital photography market has completely replaced the classical
silver-halide film. Video-conferencing, desktop video cameras and
still-picture capturing means are standard products as computer
add-ons. Imaging is added to cars, mobile phones, and other
devices. Very soon we will see the first cameras popping up in
Solid-state image sensors replaced the classical tubes in the
broadcast world and are doing the same in other professional
application areas. Also in the medical world, new surgery
techniques become possible thanks to the powerful characteristics
of the image sensors. New developments in CMOS semiconductor
technology, next to the outstanding imaging performance of CCDs,
open up new applications in the imaging arena. It is just a matter
of time and then we will be able to detect single photons with
solid-state image sensors.
The major objective of this course is to make the participants
familiar and experienced with solid-state imaging and the relevant
related topics. It will give an in-depth view of the possibilities
and limitations of the image capturing technology of today and
tomorrow. Practical sessions will form a strong backbone of the
course, complemented by several tutorial lectures.
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
The course is aimed at engineers, scientists and managers with
basic knowledge, either theoretical or hands-on, in engineering or
physics. No detailed knowledge of device physics is assumed. The
course is developed to give an in-depth understanding of image
capturing to engineers and technicians who are active in the field,
and to give those with a theoretical knowledge the opportunity to
learn more about the practical issues of the subject. Much of the
course will be of interest also to camera designers through its
The course will provide managers and research workers having
related experience in industrial, governmental or academic
institutions with a valuable update on the latest developments in
this fast-moving imaging subject.
Participants will receive a comprehensive set of course
notes, including digests of the lectures and detailed notes on the
practical work. These notes are for participants only and are not
Bring your own calculator.
A large part of the first day will focus on the working
principle of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs). Emphasis will be on the
output amplifiers, on charge transport on one-dimensional and
two-dimensional image sensors.
By means of computer animations, the basic working principle of
the various architectures will be demonstrated. A practical
exercise will make the participants familiar with the timing of a
CMOS Image Sensors
The second major subject of the first day will be on CMOS
image sensors. Passive as well as active imager configurations will
Finally, various types of sensor architectures and technologies
will be treated.
The dark characteristics of the imagers will be discussed, i.e.
dark current, its temperature
dependence and dark fixed-pattern noise. An exercise will
demonstrate these features.
The second day lectures will deal with all kinds of
optical characteristics of the imagers.
- Absorption of Photons
- Light Sensitivity
- Fill Factor
- Quantum Efficiency
- Electronic Shuttering
The MTF or Modulation Transfer Function will be studied in more
detail by means of a practical exercise.
Colour imaging is an important part of the course. We
will focus on the following topics:
- Colour imaging by means of a filter wheel
- Colour imaging by means of a prism
- Colour imaging by means of stacked photodiodes
- Colour imaging by means of colour filters
The latter can come in mosaic and in stripe configuration, in
primary and in complementary colours.
Colour imaging is more than just colour filters. Colour matrixing
and colour de-mosaicing are important techniques that we will
discuss. An exercise on colour interpolation will make these
various issues more clear.
Noise and The Dynamic Range
The most challenging topic of the course, noise and
dynamic range, will be treated on the fourth day. To make the
subject of noise more clear, all noise sources will first be
- Reset or kTC Noise
- Thermal or Johnson Noise
- Dark and Photon Shot Noise
- Flicker or 1/f Noise
- Quantization Noise
- Fixed Pattern Noise in Dark and in Light
- Noise Perception
- The Use of Noise as a Measurement Tool
- The Overall Noise Problem, i.e. the real situation when all the
various noise sources come together
Noise is a dominant factor in the definition of the dynamic
range. This will be explained further and demonstrated by means of
The Imager in Real Life
All topics we have treated so far in this course will be
incorporated into two main problems:
- How to Measure the Various Parameters of a Sensor: Dark
current, nonuniformities, MTF, conversion gain, sensitivity,
quantum efficiency, etc.
- How to Analyse the Specifications of an Imager? Existing data
sheets of imagers will be analyzed and discussed. You can also
bring your own data sheet to be discussed.
Finally, a live demonstration with a camera will summarize what
have learnt. Various sensor parameters and artefacts will be
Said about the
course from previous participants:
"The course had a good balance between enough technical
deepness and a wide range of subjects and hands-on exercises.
Wide coverage of the topic and relation to practical work. Very
interesting course, very motivated and enthusiastic teacher, fully
satisfied! Very practical and lively explanations. Many examples
from real life."